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گروه آموزشی شیمی استان کردستان ( گرووپی کیمیای پاریزگای کوردستان ) - کبالت کلرید 6 آبه
آغاز سال تحصیلی نو را که سرآغاز رویش و طراوت در بوستان عشق و محبت است به تمامی همکاران ارجمند و فرهیخته و دانش آموزان جویای دانش و معرفت تبریک می گوییم و از خداوند منان برای تمامی عزیزان توفیق روز افزون همراه با شکوفایی و سربلندی مسئلت داریم
 
گروه آموزشی شیمی استان کردستان ( گرووپی کیمیای پاریزگای کوردستان )
آموزشی، علمی و اطلاع رسانی
 

دو تعادل رنگارنگ، اثر کاتالیزگر

در ادامه بحث اثر دما بر روی جا به جایی تعادل دو مطلب راجع به دو واکنش بسیار مهم در کتاب درسی بر جای مانده بود که در این مقاله به طور مفصل به آنها پرداخته شده است. دقت داشته باشید به خاطر سپردن این دو واکنش مهم و رنگ مواد در آنها خالی از لطف نخواهد بود. هم چنین در انتها اثر کاتالیزگر را نیز بر روی تعادل بررسی می کنیم.

به تعادل زیر توجه فرمایید:

 

 

همان طور که مشاهده می کنید این تعادل در جهت رفت گرماگیر است. رنگ مواد در این تعادل بسیار ضروری است. باید بدانید Co(H2O)62+  صورتی رنگ و CoCl42-  آبی رنگ است.

 

حال اگر یک لوله آزمایش حاوی تعادل فوق را در آب جوش قرار دهیم با افزایش دما، طبق اصل لوشاتلیه این تعادل در جهت رفت جا به جا می شود و غلظت CoCl42-   که آبی رنگ است افزایش یافته و محلول به رنگ آبی در می آید. اما اگر لوله آزمایش را در مخلوط آب و یخ قرار دهیم دما کاهش می یابد و تعادل در جهت برگشت و افزایش غلظت Co(H2O)62+  پیش می رود و محلول به رنگ صورتی دیده می شود.

یادآوری: تغییر فشار بر این تعادل بی اثر است چون در آن ماده گازی شکل نداریم.

نکته: با اضافه نمودن مقداری NaCl به ظرف واکنش غلظت Cl-  زیاد شده و طبق اصل لوشاتلیه تعادل در جهت رفت جا به جا می شود و رنگ مخلوط تعادلی به آبی می گراید.

 

حال به این تعادل توجه فرمایید:

کبالت (∥)  کلرید 6 آبه (CoCl2 . 6H2O)  یک نمک آبپوشیده به رنگ صورتی است که با گرم شدن، مولکول های آب خود را از دست می دهد و CoCl2(s) که آبی رنگ است بر جای می ماند. توجه داشته باشید فرایند آب گیری از نمک های آبپوشیده یک فرایند برگشت پذیر بوده و می تواند به تعادل برسد. اگر کبالت(∥)  کلرید بدون آب در هوای مرطوب قرار گیرد مجددا با جذب 6 مولکول آب تبدیل به CoCl2  . 6H2O  می شود.

 

برای اثبات این امر دو کاغذ صافی آغشته به محلول کبالت (∥)  کلرید 6 آبه را خشک می کنیم تا آبی رنگ شوند، سپس یکی از کاغذها را در لوله آزمایش خشک و دیگری را در لوله آزمایش مرطوب قرار می دهیم. بعد از مدتی مشاهده می شود کاغذی که در لوله مرطوب بوده به رنگ صورتی در آمده است. این نشان می دهد رطوبت باعث شده CoCl2  با جذب 6 مولکول آب تبدیل به CoCl2 . 6H2O  شود و صورتی رنگ گردد.

 
 
 




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